Donetsk – a major industrial, commercial and cultural center, is 800 km from the Ukrainian capital Kyiv.
The city's economic potential was 193 industrial companies, 357 companies dealing with foreign trade, 383 construction companies, 1,550 service business, more than 13,000 small and medium enterprises.
Kalmius the evening. Donetsk 2012-2013.
The only thing that many people know of Donetsk, is that it has the football team «Shakhtar».
Despite the image of Donetsk as an industrial city, it had many interesting things for tourists. The park of´´with forged figures with gazebo for people in love, with the carousel, the UEFA Cup and other creations by masters of hammer and anvil. And the 28-ton ball fountain of stone, where the ball is spinning on the water jet. And Ukraine's largest rose garden in Shcherbakov Park.
One of the works in the park with forged figures. 2012-2013.
Interesting for tourists were Sculpture Park «Ukrainian steppe» on Pushkin Boulevard with works by Ukrainian and German artists and the theme of old Slavic legends.
Donetsk got the only railway museum in Ukraine. It is also worth seeing The Church of Nativity.
The city's tourist street is called Artema, and in addition to shopping malls, expensive hotels and restaurants, there are also a number of impressive historical monuments such as Lenin Square and the Opera House, which includes performances in absolute world class. The city's attraction Donbass Arena with capacity for 55,000 spectators. And you are lucky if you come here, when there is a football match.
Donbass Arena during Euro-2012.
The cultural part of Donetsk
In Donetsk, there were 140 museums and museum rooms. Among them, two large state-owned regional museums: Donetsk Regional Museum of Art and Donetsk Regional Local History Museum.
Visitors could visit the Drama Theatre, The Planetarium, circus, concert hall, as well as the largest library in Donetsk and the region.
Drama Theatre. 2012-2013.
Sports life in the city
Donetsk was a large sports center. It took the USSR championships in tennis, athletics, boxing. In Donetsk were also held major international competitions, matches in Davis Cup. Later there were in Donetsk football matches in the UEFA Champions League.
The story of the creation of Donetsk and its factories
Building development in the Donetsk region was launched by Zaporozhye and Don kossaks in the 17th century. According to different sources, the first small mines appeared in the area of modern Donetsk in 1820 or in 1859. The population density rose due to farmers who ran away from landowners.
In 1869 the Welsh John James Hughes (in Donbas, Hughes was called «Yuz»), began the construction of metal works and the workers settlement Yuzovka (named after the founder). This year is the year of construction of Donetsk.
In 1889, in southern Yuzovka, machinery and iron casting factories and repair shops for mining equipment were built. Now it is Rutchenkovsky Plant.
Donetsk Coke Plant. 2012-2013.
In 1916 two coke plants were built, and in 1917 – the first nitrogen factory in the Russian Empire. Now it is Donetsk Chemical Factory.
In 1917, the village Yuzovka got the status of city. In 1924, Yuzovka was renamed Stalino. It was the center of the Stalino region. Later it was divided into Stalino and Luhansk regions.
The city during the Second World War
Stalin's factories began from the beginning of the war to produce bombs, mines, anti-tank «hedgehogs» and so on. In October 1941, the evacuation of companies started. During the evacuation, companies involved in the production of military equipment were included.
On October 20, 1941, the Italian and German troops came into Stalino. On October 21, the towns of Stalino and Makiivka were completely occupied.
It was attempted to rebuild the coal industry. Jews were ordered to pay compensation. A Jewish ghetto was established with 5,000 people. On April 30, 1942 the ghetto was emptied and its inhabitants killed in the mining area «4-4 bis».
A concentration camp for Soviet prisoners of war, which contained more than 25,000 people, was established in the Metallurgian Cultural Palace and the surrounding areas. The dead were buried in a park near the Metallurgian Cultural Palace. Now this place is a monument to the «victims of the fascism».
In the town, the Germans performed punishment. The mine shaft at «4-4 bis» became a place of executions and mass graves. From a 365 m deep mine shaft, 310 m was filled with the bodies of tens of thousands of people. During withdrawal, the Germans flooded the mine shaft. On the spot there is a memorial complex now.
All companies that were not evacuated organized underground activity. From eesistance groups there was created a partisan unit.
The city was liberated on September 8, 1943. The occupation of Stalino lasted for about 700 days. The city's population fell from 507,000 to 175,000 people. The date is celebrated as Donbas's Liberation Day.
The monument for liberators in Donbas in Donetsk is dedicated to all those who liberated Donbas in World War II.
In the post-war period the city began reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1961, Stalino was renamed Donetsk, and the Stalino region became the Donetsk region.
Donetsk's industrial potential
The industrial potential of Donetsk took 2nd place in the region in terms of industrial production (after Mariupol). In the city there is one of the largest free economic zones in Ukraine for investment «Donetsk». Together with the city of Makiivka, Donetsk was the largest industrial hub of the USSR.
Donetsk metalworks. 2012-2013.
In Donetsk, the industry consists of metal industry (iron and other metals), coal, chemical (including coke) and heavy industry. In recent years light-, food- and wood industries as well as mechanical engineering have evolved.
Until 2014, modern Donetsk could rightly be called one of Ukraine's most significant cultural, scientific and business centers.
Education is conducted at 180 colleges, 38 higher education institutions, 24 vocational schools.
Donetsk, famous for a million red roses, always spent a lot of money on landscaping its territory. Donetsk participated in the nationwide competition «The best city beautification» and won the second place after Kyiv.
City center. 2012-2013.
In April 1978, the population of Donetsk has exceeded one million inhabitants, but in 2012, as a result of the demographic crisis, population numbers fell sharply.
Donetsk is de jure the administrative center in the Donetsk region, which in April 2014 is de facto partly (from 21 January 2015 – full) controlled by the unrecognized «Donetsk People's Republic» (DPR), which sees the city as its capital.
The city's transport
The railway station in Donetsk. 2012-2013.
The main types of city transport: trams, trolley buses, buses and marshrutkas.
The city has a main train station. Before the war (2014) Donetsk had 5 local stations, 2 bus terminals, 8 bus stations. Metro construction was started, but at the moment the construction is quiet due to lack of funding from the state.
Night in Donetsk. 2012-2013.
On May 14, 2012, a new terminal opened at the international airport, but during the 2014 fightings the terrorists destroyed it almost completely. The fighting for the airport cost many Ukrainian soldiers and volunteers their lives.
Donetsk International Airport Sergiy Prokofiev. 2012-2013.
Through Donetsk, the European Route E 50, the international highway M-04 and the national highways H-15, H-20, H-21 pass.
Translation by Joergen Deleuran